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Looking Inside the Disordered Brain

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    Available in PDF - DJVU Format | Looking Inside the Disordered Brain.pdf | Language: ENGLISH
    Ahmad R. Hariri(Author)

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What are the brain circuits that not only keep us alive but also allow us to thrive in our complex world, and how do even subtle disturbances within these circuits lead to abnormal behavior? Using a combination of research strategies--including neuroimaging (particularly fMRI) and abnormal and clinical psychology--this textbook addresses these timely and important questions for students of the biological, clinical, and social sciences as well as interested students from fields within the humanities, such as philosophy.

Looking Inside the Disordered Brain provides students with a working knowledge of our rapidly evolving understanding of the foundational brain circuits supporting human social, emotional, and cognitive behavior, and describes how disruptions within these circuits are associated with symptoms of common psychiatric disorders. It first establishes how specific anatomical circuits process signals we receive from our ever-changing internal and external environments to create order in our behavior. It then looks inside the disordered brain and maps specific symptoms onto dysfunction within these circuits.

The book features three neuroanatomical circuits (corticolimbic; corticostriatal; corticohippocampal) and their principal behavioral correlates (recognition and reaction; motivation and action; memory and executive control), as well as the pathological expression of dysfunction within each circuit (including depression, anxiety, phobia, mania, addiction, aggression, and disintegration of thought).

Ahmad R. Hariri emphasizes the dimensional nature of psychopathology by mapping specific symptoms within a broad diagnostic category onto disorder of the circuitry under review. For example, in major depressive disorder the symptoms of anxiety are mapped onto corticolimbic circuit dysfunction, the symptoms of anhedonia onto corticostriatal circuit dysfunction, and the symptoms of emotion dysregulation onto corticohippocampal circuit dysfunction. This is an effective strategy for introducing students to the limitations of categorical/diagnostic classifications (e.g., DSM-5) and highlighting the importance of considering behavior on a continuum from normal to abnormal.

"Judging by this book, one would expect Ahmad R. Hariri to be an effective and popular teacher. He conveys complex ideas succinctly and clearly in an engagingly informal way, and he integrates old ideas and new information in an approach that is seamless and thought-provoking. Looking Inside the Disordered Brain is an engaging and attractively presented package. The book is highly recommended to students on related courses and well worth a look for those seeking to update their functional neuroanatomy knowledge or to move beyond an introductory understanding of the biological underpinnings of psychopathology." tephen Mullin, PsycCRITIQUES Ahmad R. Hariri is Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke University, where he is also Director of the Laboratory of NeuroGenetics. After completing his B.S. and M.S. in evolutionary biology at the University of Maryland, Dr. Hariri completed his doctorate through the UCLA Interdepartmental Ph.D. Program for Neuroscience with Dr. Susan Bookheimer. He next completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the National Institute of Mental Health with Dr. Daniel Weinberger. From 2003-2009, he was first Assistant and then Associate Professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology at the University of Pittsburgh. In 2009, Dr. Hariri received the Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution to Psychology. He was also named a Highly Cited Researcher by Thomson Reuters, identifying him as 1 of only 129 investigators whose research is amongst the top 1% most cited in the field of Neuroscience and Behavior.

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Book details

  • PDF | 220 pages
  • Ahmad R. Hariri(Author)
  • Sinauer Associates is an imprint of Oxford University Press; 1st edition (January 13, 2015)
  • English
  • 9
  • Medical Books

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Review Text

  • By Arthur Joyce on October 29, 2015

    This book represents the future and the past. I was excited to find this text at a recent neuroscience conference. There simply is no undergraduate (or graduate for that matter) text that describes brain functioning from the perspective of brain networks and reciprocal connectivity. This dearth of literature is representative of the current mental health field. Multiple professions (e.g. psychiatry; neuropsychology) remain mired in traditionalism to such an extent that longstanding neuroscientific evidence remains ignored. Want an example? Alexander, DeLong, and Strick (1986) released their seminal work on the functional connectivity between the basal ganglia and various cortical areas back in 1986...nearly 30 years ago!The author of "Looking Inside the Disordered Brain" does a nice job of describing the implications of three neural circuits. These include the corticolimbic, corticostriatal, and corticohippocampal. Just as importantly, he impressively models application of the dimensional nature of mental health. He contrasts dimensional understanding of psychopathology with the current system for classification of mental illness, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), now in its fifth incarnation. Dr. Hariri is especially impressive in this regard, providing a very useful model of how clinicians can describe symptoms to patients and their families. The dimensional focus is an important and major shift in mental health. The concept has been adopted by NIMH, under the rubric of their Research Domain Criteria (for more info about RDoC, see http://www.nimh.nih.gov/research-priorities/rdoc/index.shtml). So in these respects, Dr. Hariri anticipates the future of mental health assessment and treatment.Impressive, impressive....and yet, less impressively, the author also remains stuck in the past. Dr. Hariri somehow ignores a whole set of equally significant literature linking disordered brain functioning with functional brain systems involving the cerebellum. Since the 1997publication of Jeremy Schmahmann's excellent edited book, The Cerebellum and Cognition, researchers have gathered significant amounts of data describing the cerebellum's role in cognitive functioning and mental disorders. This includes evidence of cerebellar involvement in the disordered thinking associated with schizophrenic illness (Andreasen & Pierson, 2008). In particular, the significant working memory impairments observed in schizophrenic illness are linked directly to cerebellar circuitry abnormalities, as discussed by Heck and colleagues (2014). Cerebellar dysfunction is also linked to trauma reactions (Baldacara, et al., 2011). Finally, various neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and developmental dyslexia) have also been strongly linked to disruption of various cerebro-cerebellar circuits (see Stoodley, 2015 for a recent review).The blatant omission of cerebellar circuitry causes me to give this otherwise excellent text 4 stars, rather than 5. Nevertheless, the book has a lot going for it, and there's nothing else like it for undergraduate students (or graduate students...or clinicians!). Great job; I’m looking forward to a second edition that gathers cerebellar circuitry into the fold. Alexander, G. E., DeLong, M. R., & Strick, P. L. (1986). Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annu Rev Neurosci, 9, 357-381. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ne.09.030186.002041 Andreasen, N. C., & Pierson, R. (2008). The role of the cerebellum in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry, 64(2), 81-88. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.01.003 Baldacara, L., Jackowski, A. P., Schoedl, A., Pupo, M., Andreoli, S. B., Mello, M. F., . . . Bressan, R. A. (2011). Reduced cerebellar left hemisphere and vermal volume in adults with PTSD from a community sample. J Psychiatr Res, 45(12), 1627-1633. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.07.013 Heck, A., Fastenrath, M., Ackermann, S., Auschra, B., Bickel, H., Coynel, D., . . . Papassotiropoulos, A. (2014). Converging genetic and functional brain imaging evidence links neuronal excitability to working memory, psychiatric disease, and brain activity. Neuron, 81(5), 1203-1213. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.01.010 Schmahmann, J. D. (1997). The cerebellum and cognition. San Diego: Academic Press. Stoodley, C. J. (2015). The Cerebellum and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Cerebellum. doi: 10.1007/s12311-015-0715-3

  • By LFK on October 29, 2015

    It is difficult to find a textbook that discusses current neuroscientific findings and principles of brain networks and "hub" theory. A text on disordered brain functioning discussed within this context is even more difficult to find and in my opinion, does not exist. "Looking Inside the Disordered Brain" is a good first step in that direction. The author presents a simplified view of brain circuitry but overall, this is a well organized, concise text. While the author describes his audience for this book as undergraduate students, many neuropsychologists in clinical practice would very likely benefit from this "easy read" textbook. While the author takes complicated topics and makes them simple to understand, I believe the book deserves 3 stars because of one glaring weakness; there is an absolutely huge database that discusses neocortical-cerebellar reciprocal connections, and even at least a slowly accumulating literature that discusses basal ganglia-cerebellar connections, although the functions of basal ganglia-cerebellar circuitry systems are poorly understood. Nevertheless, there is considerable documentation that the cerebellum participates in cognition, in both health and "psychopathology" and this critical information is completely ignored. And for this reason, an integrated understanding of the "disordered brain" cannot be achieved by reading this book. That sais, this remains a worthwhile book to read, as long as the reader is aware of the "missing links." Otherwise, the text can be misleading.

  • By Mohamed S. on April 4, 2015

    I am a psychiatrist and is involved in research in computational neuroscience. The book organizes the major circuits in the brain, discusses their anatomy, function and dysfunction. It is very well organized, with many illustrations and functional neuroimaging figures, which would be helpful in discussions with the patients. It helps me organize my thinking about the various symptoms.

  • By K. Garcia on February 18, 2015

    First, commendations on this first effort. I assume this work reflects an ongoing effort to create a clinically-relevant introductory standardized textbook providing a circuit-based functional brain model. By my estimate it should be sufficiently mature by it's third edition. Personally, what is missing is what is often missing in today's translational neuroscience research...an overarching vision of the purpose of the brain as a computer serving to address the problems of adaptation. Without such an integrating concept, the parts do not come together. fMRI data is interpreted within a narrow and misleading context. Psychiatric disorders are defined without a sense of how they relate to adaptation, but as a collection of behavioral and/or phenomenological oddities. The book itself divides the brain into certain major circuits and, although it does describe some of the understanding of those circuits, does not bring the brain back together as a functioning whole. But this reflects something of the current state in psychiatry; which remains true to the Indian tale of the blind men and the elephant.


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